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Фонетика: sound [] Словообразование - Пособие является основной частью учебно-методического комплекса, предназначенного...


UNIT 4
Фонетика: sound []

Словообразование: суффиксы существительных -ment, -ion; суффикс прила­гательных -ic

Грамматика: настоящее время Present Continious и причастия I и II

Текст: «Pete is preparing for the seminar»

4.1. Sound right

4.1.1. Listen, look, say:

add that marry Al

bag back parrot Alma

ham hat wagon pal

pan pant happy shall

lab lap fancy category

badge batch chapter alphabet

4.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. That's flat.

2. That's bad.

3. And that's that.

4. Sam's acting the ass.

5. Fancy! Fancy that!

6. That's absolutely fantastic!

7. The lad cannot be that bad.

8. Ann chatters like a magpie.

9. Pat cannot catch that.

10. He that hatches matches hatches catches.

4.1.3. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference between [] and [e].

I

1. Get a pet, Pat.

2. Allan, I've got a pet. I've got a cat.

1. That terrible black cat outside?

2. Terrible?

1. That smelly cat?

2. Alice is an elegant cat!

1. Well, perhaps that cat at the back isn't Alice.

2. Alice! Puss-puss Alice! Alice, you haven't met

Allan. Puss-puss. Now, Allan. This is Alice.

1. Yes, Pat. Yes, that's Alice.

II

1. Thank you for your letter.

2. Is your leg any better?

1. My leg is getting better, yes.

2. Well, I'm glad you are getting better.

1. I was glad to get your letter.

2. I'll be back again next Saturday.

l.Yes.

4.1.4. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

4.1.5. Read the dialogues in pairs.

*4.1.6. Try to read the tongue-twisters as fast as you can. Pay attention to the sound [] and the difference between [] and [e].

1. A black cat sat on a mat and ate a fat rat.

What a black cat!

fat—жирный

rat — крыса

2. Pat keeps two pets —

A cat and a rat.

Pat likes his pets,

And his pets like Pat.

4.2. Word-building:

(-ment), (-ion), (-tion), (-ic)

4.2.1. Give Russian equivalents to the following:

judgement, payment, punishment, development, government, imprisonment, argument, fulfilment, astonishment, enforcement.

4.2.2. Answer the questions:

1. Do you take any refreshment after the first class?

2. Do you have an appointment with the doctor this week?

3. Do you notice any improvement in your English since last year?

4. What arrangements do you usually make for a journey?

5. Do you usually read the announcements on the noticeboard?

4.2.3. Form the nouns with the help of the given verbs and suffix -ion, give their Russian equivalents:

construct, decide, limit, legislate, contradict, prepare, declare, produce, express, prohibit.

4.2.4. Answer the questions:

1. In what direction do you have to go to get to the centre of the city?

2. Do you have any objections to having English classes on Sunday?

3. What kind of exhibitions do you like to see?

4. What book has caught your imagination recent­ly?

5. Do you have pleasant associations with your school days?

4.2.5. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations:

antagonistic classes; automatic machine; basic principles; parasitic way of life; realistic policy;

nationalistic tendencies; specific conditions; philo­sophic ideas; sympathetic face; barbaric culture.

4.3. Full understanding

4.3.1. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

seminar, product ['prodkt], exploit(er), class, special, machinery [m'n], economic, politi­cal, system, regulate, instrument, official, institu­tion, organ, machine [m'n], army, police [po'ls], individual, collective, parliament, tradition, constitution, type, function, historical, category.

*4.3.2. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте, запомните:

New words:

reading-room — читальный зал

library — библиотека

to make notes — конспектировать

to be good at smth. — успевать (по какому-либо предмету)

to judge —судить

society — общество

stage of development — стадия развития

private property ['pravt] — частная собственность

to keep order — поддерживать порядок

relation — отношение

power — власть

ruling — правящий

government — правительство

consist of — состоять из

legislation [les'len] — законодательство

chief [tf] — глава

to create — создавать

to include — включать

School vocabulary:

to prepare, to work, hard, either, really, difficult, definite, to divide, each, other, to begin, to teach, between, part, department.

^ 4.3.3. Прочитайте и переведите:

Pete is preparing for the seminar

Pete Sokolov is in the reading-room of the library. He is reading something and making notes. Let's come up to him and ask what he is reading. «Hello, Pete! What are you doing now?» — «Oh, hello! I'm preparing for my seminar in the theory of state and law. I'm not good at this subject and I'm working very hard now. And I haven't much time either1. Please, don't bother me anymore, will you?» Isn't Pete a busy boy? But let's see what he is reading. Is it really so very difficult? Look and judge for yourself.

^ The state

The state is a product of society at a definite stage of its development. Private property divides men and allows them to exploit each other and in this way class contra­dictions begin. The special machinery created by the class of exploiters — the state helps them to keep order. In a class society the state is an instrument of political power of the ruling class. The state is a system of official institutions and organs. This system of organs is the machinery of government, the state machine. This ma­chine includes such organs as the army, the police, the courts. The other part of the state machine consists of the system of state organs including the chief of the state (an individual or collective), parliament, government, de­partments and other organs. These organs are political; they are the organs of state power of the ruling class. The constitution, legislation or traditions regulate the power of each state organ. Different types of states have different functions. That's why we speak about the state only as the historical category.

Notes: 1. either — в отрицательных предложениях соответствует русским словам тоже, так­ же. Слова too, also в отрицательных предложениях не употребляются.

4.3.4. Расскажите о том, что сейчас происходит в аудитории.

4.3.5. Некоторые студенты не понимают разницы между Simple Present и Present Continuous. Объясните им эту разницу, используя следующие пары предложений:

1. Listen! The teacher's explaining a very difficult thing. He always explains difficult things carefully.

2. John speaks three foreign languages. Just now he's speaking French on the phone.

3. Pete usually doesn't work much but now he's working very hard preparing for the seminar.

4.3.6. Проверьте, как вы и ваши друзья понимаете разницу между Present Continuous и Simple Present. Выберите правильный вариант в скобках:

1. I ...three articles a week (translate, am trans­lating).

2. Don't enter the classroom. The students ... an exam now (take, are taking).

3. He always ... dinner at this time (has, is having).

4. It often ... in Rostov in November (rains, is raining).

5. Listen! Ann ... in the next room (sings, is singing).

6. He always ... in his room (keeps order, is keeping order).

4.3.7. Предположим, что вы — Петр Соколов. Расскажите, что вы сейчас делаете.

*4.3.8. Скажите по-английски:

1. Сейчас правительство готовит новое зако­нодательство. 2. В классовом обществе част­ная собственность разделяет людей. 3. Посмот­ри! Полиция атакует рабочих. 4. Ваш юрист говорит сейчас по телефону. 5. Где Петр? — Он сейчас в библиотеке конспектирует статью о государстве. 6. Что сейчас делает Стив?—Он готовится к новому процессу (trial). 7. Почему ты делишь яблоко на две части? — Одну половину — тебе, одну — себе. 8. Обычно он работает в библиотеке, но сегодня он работает дома.

4.3.9. Найдите в тексте Participle I и Participle II.

Определите их функции.

4.3.10. Объявляем соревнование на звание лучшего переводчика! Победитель получит приз. Будьте внимательны, переводя следующие предложе­ния:

1. The legislation prepared by this department is very important.

2. The student answering now is rather good at this subject.

3. Trying to keep order the police often arrests the demonstrators.

4. There are some state institutions regulating the life of the society.

5. He's working very hard making notes and reading a lot.

6. Divided by the private property men begin to exploit each other.

7. Created by the class of exploiters the state is the instrument of their political power.

8. Do you know the judge speaking to Steve now?

4.3.11. Автор рассказа не совсем уверен, какое причастие употребить: Participle I или Par­ticiple II. Помогите ему.

The man ... at the window is my uncle John (standing, stood). He's rather unusual person. He's got five pets... in his house (living, lived). One of these pets ... Greeny is a young crocodile (calling, called). It lives in the bathroom and ... anybody but his master to come in (allowing, allowed). The other pet is a parrot ... to speak (teaching, taught). He says rather strange things sometimes. The other two pets are bulldogs ... at everybody... to the door of the flat (barking, barked) (coming, come). It's not surprising that uncle John lives alone... by his wife two years ago when his fifth pet — a large snake ... to him by a famous travellor appeared in his flat (leaving, left) (presenting, presented).

*4.3.12. Петр Соколов довольно хорошо знает теперь, что такое государство. А вы? Ответьте на несколько вопросов о государстве. (Книги закрыты.)

1. What is the state? 2. What does the class of exploiters create? What for? 3. What does the theory of the state teach? What is the state machine? 5. What does the other part of the state machine consist of? 6. What regulates the power of each state organ? 7. Why do we speak about the state only as the historical category?

4.3.13. Кто (или какая команда) сможет составить больше предложений со следующими словами (время — 5 мин):

constitution, official, parliament, regulate, consist of, government, legislation, property, society, state.

4.3.14. Петр Соколов недостаточно хорошо знает определения следующих понятий: state, army and police, state organs. Помогите ему.

4.3.15. Петр Соколов сейчас выступает на семинаре. Но он так волнуется, что не может закончить начатые фразы. Вам разрешается подсказать ему:

1. Class contradictions begin because...

2. The organs of the state are political organs because...

3. The state helps the exploiters to keep order because ...

4. The chief instruments of state power are...

* 4.3.16. Скажите по-английски:

1. Система государственных органов включает главу государства, парламент, правительство и другие органы. 2. Парламент состоит из двух палат. 3. Правящий класс регулирует зако­нодательство. 4. Частная собственность разделяет общество в буржуазном государстве. 5. Правительство любого государства регулирует политическую жизнь в своем обществе. 6. Законодательство капиталистических государств помогает сохранить существующие отношения между правящим и рабочим классом.

^ 4.4. Practice in communication

(Request)

*4.4.1. Read and try to remember:

Asking people to do things.

A. Could B. (Yes,) of course (cer-

Would tainly) all right.

you ... (please)?

Will you .... I'm afraid/Sorry,

(please)? OK? I can't.

..., will you? (No,)Ican't./Iwon't.

would

Do you mind -ing ...?

Would

Will you be so kind as to...?

Would — (Very formal)

May I ask you to do me a favour?

Be so kind as to ...

4.4.2. In varying degrees of politeness ask someone in the group to ...

1. turn the radio off;

2. close the door,

3. tell you the truth;

4. show you the way;

5. carry your suitcase;

6. speak to the point;

7. do you a favour;

8. keep an eye on your luggage.

He/She will comply or refuse.

4.4.3. Express your willingness or refuse to do what you are asked.

Model: T. Will you help me to translate this article. (Let's have a look at it.)

S. Certainly, with pleasure. Let's have a look.

1. Would you mind lending me your pencil for a moment? (Here it is.)

2. Would you mind reading these papers? (I've left my glasses at home.)

3. Will you do me a favour? (What is it?)

4. Will you, please, translate this notice to me? (I don't quite understand it.)

5. Help me to move this table, please. (Where shall we put?)

4.4.4. Look, listen and then dramatize.

Tom has been waiting to be served for a long time. He is impatient.

TOM Waiter, bring me the menu, will you?

WAITER Just a moment. I'm coming. (Ten minutes later.) Now, what would you like?

TOM I'd like to see the menu. Would you get me one, please?

WAITER Yes, certainly. Here you are.

TOM Thank you. Ah! But this is in French.Would you mind giving me the English one?

WAITER It's written in English too, in smaller print. There.

TOM Thanks. I'll need a while to choose. Could you come back in a minute?

WAITER Right. (Five minutes later.) Now, what are you having?

TOM I'm sorry, I haven't decided yet. Do you mind giving me a couple of min­utes?

WAITER All right, but would you be so kind as to make up your mind soon? We're very busy just now as you can see, sir.

4.4.5. Translate the notice. Say where you are likely to see them.

1. In; 2. Out; 3. No entry; 4. Pull; 5. Push; 6. Private; 7. No admittance; 8. Emergency; 9. No trespassing; 10. No overtaking; 11. No parking; 12. Wet paint; 13. Keep clear of the doors; 14. For hire.

^ 4.5. General understanding

4.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 4)

1. Coke listens for several seconds but he can't hear anything at all. And yet there is smoke coming from the chimney and there is a light on in the front room! «Why is it so quiet? Are the police waiting for me in there?» he asks himself. He goes to the front door and pushes it. To his surprise it is open! He goes in very quietly. In the front room there is a fire burning, in the fireplace. The room is clean, small and very warm. There is very little furniture in it — only a table and two old-fashioned chairs. There are also some photographs on the shelf above the fire. They are yellow and old. One of them is of a young man in a World War I uniform. There are also a few photoes of the same man and also a woman.

2. Suddenly Coke feels there is someone else in the room. He turns around quickly and, at the same time, puts his hand in his pocket. There is asmall knife there. He sees an old woman. She has a dish in her hands and there is a smell of meat and vegetables coming from it. She doesn't look afraid. «I'm sorry», she says and puts the dish down on the table.

3. «I'm sorry», she says again. «I don't hear you. I'm deaf, you see. People often come to the door and knock, but I don't hear them. I'm glad you are here».

Coke stares at her for a second and then finally finds his voice: «I ... I'm sorry». He looks down at his clothes. His prison uniform is so dirty that it is impossible to tell what kind of uniform it is. Then he suddenly has an idea.

«I'm a mechanic from a garage in town. I came to repair a lorry somewhere out here but the road was icy. I had an accident. I ... I fell off my motorbike».

He says this several times before she finally under­stands him. Then she gives him some hot water and soap and afterwards some food. The only thing he needs now is a change of clothes!

4.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. When Coke comes in he sees:

a) an old woman;

b) a young man;

c) some photographs on the shelf.

2. The woman has:

a) a small knife in her hands;

b) a dish in her hands;

c) old clothes in her hands.

3. A woman isn't afraid because:

a) she's deaf;

b) people often come to her door;

c) Coke looks pleasant.

4. The woman gives Coke:

a) hot water and soap;

b) a change of clothes;

c) some photoes.

4.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What can Coke see in the front room?

2. What photoes are there on the shelf?

3. What is there in Coke's pocket?

4. What is there in the old woman's hands?

5. Why isn't she afraid?

6. How does he explain his clothes?

4.5.4. Express the main idea of this episode in one-two sentences.

4.6. Scanning practice

4.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. What did the judge's wife ask him to do?

2. What did the judge do with the box?

3. What was there in the box?

4.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

Caught in his own trap

It happened in England not very long ago. A judge was going for an assize (выездная сессия суда) to a distant town. His wife asked him to allow her to go with him. The judge agreed but told her not to take a lot of boxes. Next morning they started in a carriage. On the way the judge wanted to stretch his legs and his feet struck against something under the seat. It was a box. The judge was very angry, he opened the window and threw the box out. The coachman stopped the horses to pick up the box but the judge ordered to drive on.

The next day the travellers reached the town. The judge put on the robes and was ready for going to the court, but he couldn't find his wig (парик) which is a very important attribute of an English judge. Then he cried: «Where in all the world is my wig?» — «Your wig, my Lord? Why, your Lordship threw it out of the carriage window yesterday», explained the coachman who was watching the scene.

(176 words)

4.6.3. Answer the questions in 4.6.1. (Books closed.)

4.7. Listening practice

4.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text.

1. What languages can one of the husbands speak?

2. What can the other husband do?

3. Why does the first woman say that her husband is a very good one?

4.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

4.7.3. Try to answer the questions in 4.7.1.

4.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

for sale — на продажу

damn — черт побери

4.7.5. Listen to the text. Be ready to give the contents of it in Russian.

4.7.6. Tell the contents of text in Russian.

^ 4.8. Time for fun

4.8.1. Read the jokes. Try to retell them. You may do it in Russian.

1. Prisoner: The judge sent me here for the rest of my life.

Prison guard: Have you got any complaints?

Prisoner: Do you call breaking rock with a hammer a rest?

the rest of my life — a) to the end of my life; b) the best rest in my life.

2. — Mary is a brilliant woman.

— Oh, she picks up things fast?

— Yes, she's a shoplifter.

to pick up — схватывать на лету (о знаниях); (зд.) воровать

shoplifter — магазинный вор

? *4.8.2. Try to solve the letter riddles.

1. In which word are there ten letters T?

2. Which two letters of the alphabet contain nothing?

? 4.8.3. And now a 3 minute crossword for you.

^ ACROSS: DOWN:

2. Present Tense of I. Let's go for a «brought», cycle...

6. The painter needs it. 2. A girl puts it on.

7. It is in your room. 3. an instrument.

4. what the fire does.

5. opposite of «hot».



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